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What to look for
Boolean operators form the basis of mathematical sets and database logic.
- They connect your seach words together to either narrow or broaden your set of results.
- The three basic boolean operators are: AND, OR, and NOT.
- Boolean Operators must be all CAPITALS. Use AND vs. and, OR vs. or, NOT vs. not. Using lower case operators can greatly impact the quantity and quality of your search results.
Why use Boolean operators?
- To focus a search, particularly when your topic contains multiple search terms.
- To connect various pieces of information to find exactly what you're looking for.
handmaid's tale (title) AND gender
Use AND in a search to:
- narrow your results
- tell the database that ALL search terms must be present in the resulting records
- example: cloning AND humans AND ethics
The purple triangle in the middle of the Venn diagram below represents the result set for this search. It is a small set using AND, the combination of all three search words.
Be aware: In many, but not all, databases, the AND is implied.
- For example, Google automatically puts an AND in between your search terms.
- Though all your search terms are included in the results, they may not be connected together in the way you want.
- For example, this search: college students test anxiety is translated to: college AND students AND test AND anxiety. The words may appear individually throughout the resulting records.
- You can search using phrases to make your results more specific.
- For example: "college students" AND "test anxiety". This way, the phrases show up in the results as you expect them to be.
Use OR in a search to:
- connect two or more similar concepts (synonyms)
- broaden your results, telling the database that ANY of your search terms can be present in the resulting records
- example: cloning OR genetics OR reproduction
All three circles represent the result set for this search. It is a big set because any of those words are valid using the OR operator.
Use NOT in a search to:
- exclude words from your search
- narrow your search, telling the database to ignore concepts that may be implied by your search terms
- example: cloning NOT sheep
Databases follow commands you type in and return results based on those commands. Be aware of the logical order in which words are connected when using Boolean operators:
- Databases usually recognize AND as the primary operator, and will connect concepts with AND together first.
- If you use a combination of AND and OR operators in a search, enclose the words to be "ORed" together in parentheses.
- ethics AND (cloning OR reproductive techniques)
- (ethic* OR moral*) AND (bioengineering OR cloning)
These pages are based on a guide developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Libraries. They are used here under the creative commons (cc) licence. The original pages can be found here http://libguides.mit.edu/c.php?g=175963&p=1160724